Publication:

Monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in febrile pediatric oncology patients with bacteremia using infrared spectroscopy of white blood cells-based machine learning

Talanta

Authors From Afeka: Prof. Itshak Lapidot

Abstract

Bacteremia refers to the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream, which can lead to a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. In oncology patients, individuals undergoing cancer treatment have a higher risk of developing bacteremia due to a weakened immune system resulting from the disease itself or the treatments they receive. Prompt and accurate detection of bacterial infections and monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy are essential for enhancing patient outcomes and preventing the development and dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Traditional methods of infection monitoring, such as blood cultures and clinical observations, are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and often subject to limitations.

This manuscript presents an innovative application of infrared spectroscopy of leucocytes of pediatric oncology patients with bacteremia combined with machine learning to diagnose the etiology of infection as bacterial and simultaneously monitor the efficacy of the antibiotic therapy in febrile pediatric oncology patients with bacteremia infections. Through the implementation of effective monitoring, it becomes possible to promptly identify any indications of treatment failure. This, in turn, indirectly serves to limit the progression of antibiotic resistance.

The logistic regression (LR) classifier was able to differentiate the samples as bacterial or control within an hour, after receiving the blood samples with a success rate of over 95 %. Additionally, initial findings indicate that employing infrared spectroscopy of white blood cells (WBCs) along with machine learning is viable for monitoring the success of antibiotic therapy. Our follow up results demonstrate an accuracy of 87.5 % in assessing the effectiveness of the antibiotic treatment.

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